个人博客http转https

  搭建个人博客的时候,就看过一些免费证书申请的文章,也浏览过一些使用Https的博客。使用Https要比Http安全很多,至少在国内很普通的流量劫持攻击会减少很多。闲来无事,测试把自己的个人博客也升级到Https。
  使用Https加密首先就需要申请个人博客证书,收费的证书颁发机构国内和国外都有很多。个人博客推荐使用现在比较流行的Let's Encrypt。申请过程比较简单,使用官方自动化脚本:
1、配置git环境

# yum install git

2、下载自动化脚本到本地

# git clone https://github.com/certbot/certbot
# cd certbot

3、生成证书

# ./certbot-auto certonly --standalone --email loryxxx@hotmail.com -d iorisun.com -d www.iorisun.com

ScreenShot3939.jpg
自动化脚本将安装以下软件包
ScreenShot3940.jpg
安装过程,需要手动确认是否安装,输入Y确认。另外还需要接受官方协议,输入A回车即可。
注意:申请时,防火墙需要开通https端口

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
# firewall-cmd --reload

申请成功后,有以下提示:
ScreenShot3942.jpg
可通过tree命令查看:

# tree /etc/letsencrypt/live/

ScreenShot3943.jpg
4、修改nginx配置文件

# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

在Nginx配置文件中加入SSL参数定义,把http重定向到https
如下:修改和增加以下内容(为避免升级nginx后主页被修改,最好把index.php放在首位)
ScreenShot3951.jpg
重启服务后,再打开网站就可以看到绿色的小锁了。
ScreenShot3950.jpg
5、设置证书自动延期
Let's Encrypt的证书有效期只有90天,需要定期更新证书:
通过crontab制定一个计划任务,每2个月(即1、3、5、7、9、11月15日凌晨2点0分)更新一次。

0 2 15 */2 * root /root/certbot/certbot-auto renew --standalone --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start" --force-renewal

或者使用

# ./certbot-auto renew -v

命令也可以(注:要先关闭nginx服务再运行,否则会报错)。

6、修改博客站点地址
ScreenShot3945.jpg
注意:需要同步修改图片地址http为https(如修改数据库等)

优化Https安全性

1、生成dhparam.pem

# cd /etc/ssl/certs/
# openssl dhparam -out dhparam.pem 2048

ScreenShot3952.jpg
2、生成HTTP Public Key Pinning参考文档

# cd /etc/letsencrypt/live/iorisun.com/
# openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -outform der -pubout | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64
writing RSA key
9rcncxVnzws62MPkX5nUJPKs5jAGAhnxeqANv0Hx7Vo=

或者:

# openssl s_client -servername www.iorisun.com -connect www.iorisun.com:443 | openssl x509 -pubkey -noout | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64
depth=2 O = Digital Signature Trust Co., CN = DST Root CA X3
verify return:1
depth=1 C = US, O = Let's Encrypt, CN = Let's Encrypt Authority X3
verify return:1
depth=0 CN = iorisun.com
verify return:1
writing RSA key
9rcncxVnzws62MPkX5nUJPKs5jAGAhnxeqANv0Hx7Vo=

生成中间证书指纹:

# openssl x509 -in chain.pem -pubkey -noout | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64
writing RSA key
YLh1dUR9y6Kja30RrAn7JKnbQG/uEtLMkBgFF2Fuihg=

生成备用证书指纹(官方备用):

# curl https://letsencrypt.org/certs/lets-encrypt-x4-cross-signed.pem | openssl x509 -pubkey | openssl pkey -pubin -outform der | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | base64
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100  1647  100  1647    0     0   1968      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  1967
sRHdihwgkaib1P1gxX8HFszlD+7/gTfNvuAybgLPNis=

3、修改nginx配置文件:

# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
server {
    listen 80;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
    server_name www.iorisun.com iorisun.com;
    root         /usr/share/nginx/html/;
    index        index.html index.php index.htm;
    if ($scheme = http) {
        return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
    }
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/iorisun.com/fullchain.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/iorisun.com/privkey.pem;
    ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
    ssl_ciphers "ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA:AES128-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:HIGH:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!DES:!MD5:!PSK:!RC4";
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
    ssl_session_timeout  10m;
    ssl_session_tickets off;
    ssl_stapling on;
    ssl_stapling_verify on;
    ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/iorisun.com/chain.pem;
    ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem;
    server_tokens off;
    resolver 8.8.4.4 8.8.8.8 valid=300s;
    resolver_timeout 10s;
    fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;
    add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000; includeSubDomains; preload";
    add_header Public-Key-Pins 'pin-sha256="9rcncxVnzws62MPkX5nUJPKs5jAGAhnxeqANv0Hx7Vo="; pin-sha256="YLh1dUR9y6Kja30RrAn7JKnbQG/uEtLMkBgFF2Fuihg="; pin-sha256="sRHdihwgkaib1P1gxX8HFszlD+7/gTfNvuAybgLPNis="; max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains';
    add_header X-Frame-Options DENY;
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;

配置完之后可以测试一下网站的安全级别:www.ssllabs.com
ScreenShot3956.jpg
参考:
blog.kuoruan.com
imququ.com
raymii.org
ithenrik.com

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